Wednesday, June 17, 2015




 Eclectic spirituality. Many paths that lead to one light          
A look into various Spiritual paths beliefs, and practices. Life as we know it is surrounded by spiritual thinkers. Our own thoughts and judgement all revolve around our spiritual minds. There are many Spiritual paths, and traditions. Be open minded as you and I just may learn some things about ourselves in the process.

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In monotheism and henotheism, God is conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith The concept of God as described bytheologians commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. In theism, God is the creator andsustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe. Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one God or in the oneness of God. In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, God is purported not to exist, while God is deemed unknown or unknowable within the context of agnosticism. God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial), a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent"

There are many names for God, and different names are attached to different cultural ideas about God's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten,[3] premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and Creator of the Universe.[4] In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, "He Who Is," "I Am that I Am", and the tetragrammaton YHWH are used as names of God, while Yahweh and Jehovah are sometimes used in Christianity as vocalizations of YHWH. In Judaism, it is common to refer to God by the titular names Elohim or Adonai, the latter of which is believed by some scholars to descend from the Egyptian Aten] In Islam, the name Allah, "Al-El," or "Al-Elah" ("the God") is used, while Muslims also have a multitude of titular names for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a monistic deity.[10] Other religions have names for God, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism,[12] and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism.

The Existence of God

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The topic will be treated as follows:

I. As Known Through Natural Reason 
A. The Problem Stated 
1. Formal Anti-Theism 
2. Types of Theism 
B. Theistic Proofs 
1. A Posteriori Argument 
(a) The general causality argument 
(b) The argument from design 
(c) The argument from conscience 
(d) The argument from universal consent 
2. A Priori, or Ontological, Argument 
II. As Known Through Faith 
A. Sacred Scriptures 
B. Church Councils 
C. The Knowability of God

As known through natural reason — ("the God of the philosophers")

The problem stated

Formal anti-theism

Had the Theist merely to face a blank Atheistic denial of God's existence, his task would he comparatively a light one. Formal dogmatic Atheism is self-refuting, and has never de facto won the reasoned assent of any considerable number of men. Nor can Polytheism, however easily it may take hold of the popular imagination, ever satisfy the mind of a philosopher. But there are several varieties of what may be described as virtual Atheism which cannot be dismissed so summarily.

There is the Agnosticism, for instance, of Herbert Spencer, which, while admitting the rational necessity of postulating the Absolute or Unconditioned behind the relative and conditioned objects of our knowledge declares that Absolute to be altogether unknowable, to be in fact the Unknowable, about which without being guilty of contradiction we can predicate nothing at all, except perhaps that It exists; and there are other types of Agnosticism.

Then again there is Pantheism in an almost endless variety of forms, all of which, however, may be logically reduced to the three following types:

the purely materialistic, which, making matter the only reality, would explain life by mechanics and chemistry, reduce abstract thought to the level of an organic process deny any higher ultimate moral value to the Ten Commandments than to Newton's law of gravitation, and, finally, identify God Himself with the universe thus interpreted (see MATERIALISM; MONISM);
the purely idealistic, which, choosing the contrary alternative, would make mind the only reality, convert the material universe into an idea, and identify God with this all-embracing mind or idea, conceived as eternally evolving itself into passing phases or expressions of being and attaining self-consciousness in the souls of men; and
the combined materialistic-idealistic, which tries to steer a middle course and without sacrificing mind to matter or matter to mind, would conceive the existing universe, with which God is identified, as some sort of "double-faced" single entity.
Thus to accomplish even the beginning of his task the Theist has to show, against Agnostics, that the knowledge of God attainable by rational inference — however inadequate and imperfect it may be — is as true and valid, as far as it goes, as any other piece of knowledge we possess; and against Pantheists that the God of reason is a supra-mundane personal God distinct both from matter and from the finite human mind — that neither we ourselves nor the earth we tread upon enter into the constitution of His being.

Types of theism

But passing from views that are formally anti-theistic, it is found that among Theists themselves certain differences exist which tend to complicate the problem, and increase the difficulty of stating it briefly and clearly. Some of these differences are brief and clear.

Some of these differences are merely formal and accidental and do not affect the substance of the theistic thesis, but others are of substantial importance, as, for instance, whether we can validly establish the truth of God's existence by the same kind of rational inference (e.g. from effect to cause) as we employ in other departments of knowledge, or whether, in order to justify our belief in this truth, we must not rather rely on some transcendental principle or axiom, superior and antecedent to dialectical reasoning; or on immediate intuition; or on some moral, sentimental, emotional, or æsthetic instinct or perception, which is voluntary rather than intellectual.

Kant denied in the name of "pure reason" the inferential validity of the classical theistic proofs, while in the name of "practical reason" he postulated God's existence as an implicate of the moral law, and Kant's method has been followed or imitated by many Theists — by some who fully agree with him in rejecting the classical arguments; by others, who, without going so far, believe in the apologetical expediency of trying to persuade rather than convince men to be Theists. A moderate reaction against the too rigidly mathematical intellectualism of Descartes was to be welcomed, but the Kantian reaction by its excesses has injured the cause of Theism and helped forward the cause of anti-theistic philosophy. Herbert Spencer, as is well known, borrowed most of his arguments for Agnosticism from Hamilton and Mansel, who had popularized Kantian criticism in England, while in trying to improve on Kant's reconstructive transcendentalism, his German disciples (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel) drifted into Pantheism. Kant also helped to prepare the way for the total disparagement of human reason in relation to religious truth, which constitutes the negative side of Traditionalism, while the appeal of that system on the positive side to the common consent and tradition of mankind as the chief or sole criterion of truth and more especially of religious truth — its authority as a criterion being traced ultimately to a positive Divine revelation — is, like Kant's refuge in practical reason, merely an illogical attempt to escape from Agnosticism.

Again, though Ontologism — like that of Malebranche (d. 1715) — is older than Kant, its revival in the nineteenth century (by Gioberti, Rosmini, and others) has been inspired to some extent by Kantian influences. This system maintains that we have naturally some immediate consciousness, however dim at first, or some intuitive knowledge of God — not indeed that we see Him in His essence face to face but that we know Him in His relation to creatures by the same act of cognition — according to Rosmini, as we become conscious of being in general — and therefore that the truth of His existence is as much a datum of philosophy as is the abstract idea of being.

Finally, the philosophy of Modernism — about which there has recently been such a stir — is a somewhat complex medley of these various systems and tendencies; its main features as a system are:

negatively, a thoroughgoing intellectual Agnosticism, and
positively, the assertion of an immediate sense or experience of God as immanent in the life of the soul — an experience which is at first only subconscious, but which, when the requisite moral dispositions are present, becomes an object of conscious certainty.
Now all these varying types of Theism, in so far as they are opposed to the classical and traditional type, may be reduced to one or other of the two following propositions:

that we have naturally an immediate consciousness or intuition of God's existence and may therefore dispense with any attempt to prove this truth inferentially;
that, though we do not know this truth intuitively and cannot prove it inferentially in such a way as to satisfy the speculative reason, we can, nevertheless, and must conscientiously believe it on other than strictly intellectual grounds.
But an appeal to experience, not to mention other objections, is sufficient to negative the first proposition — and the second, which, as history has already made clear, is an illogical compromise with Agnosticism, is best refuted by a simple statement of the theistic Proofs. It is not the proofs that are found to be fallacious but the criticism which rejects them. It is true of course — and no Theist denies it — that for the proper intellectual appreciation of theistic proofs moral dispositions are required, and that moral consciousness, the æsthetic faculty, and whatever other powers or capacities belong to man's spiritual nature, constitute or supply so many data on which to base inferential proofs. But this is very different from holding that we possess any faculty or power which assures us of God's existence and which is independent of, and superior to, the intellectual laws that regulate our assent to truth in general — that in the religious sphere we can transcend those laws without confessing our belief in God to be irrational. It is also true that a mere barren intellectual assent to the truth of God's existence — and such an assent is conceivable — falls very far short of what religious assent ought to be; that what is taught in revealed religion about the worthlessness of faith uninformed by charity has its counterpart in natural religion; and that practical Theism, if it pretends to be adequate, must appeal not merely to the intellect but to the heart and conscience of mankind and be capable of winning the total allegiance of rational creatures. But here again we meet with exaggeration and confusion on the part of those Theists who would substitute for intellectual assent something that does not exclude but presupposes it and is only required to complement it. The truth and pertinency of these observations will be made clear by the following summary of the classical arguments for God's existence.
Theistic proofs

The arguments for God's existence are variously classified and entitled by different writers, but all agree in recognizing the distinction between a priori, or deductive, and a posteriori, or inductive reasoning in this connection. And while all admit the validity and sufficiency of the latter method, opinion is divided in regard to the former. Some maintain that a valid a priori proof (usually called the ontological) is available; others deny this completely; while some others maintain an attitude of compromise or neutrality. This difference, it should be observed, applies only to the question of proving God's actual existence; for, His self-existence being admitted, it is necessary to employ a priori or deductive inference in order to arrive at a knowledge of His nature and attributes, and as it is impossible to develop the arguments for His existence without some working notion of His nature, it is necessary to some extent to anticipate the deductive stage and combine the a priori with the a posteriori method. But no strictly a priori conclusion need be more than hypothetically assumed at this stage.

A posteriori argument

St. Thomas (Summa Theologica I:2:3; Cont. Gent., I, xiii) and after him many scholastic writers advance the five following arguments to prove the existence of God:

Motion, i.e. the passing from power to act, as it takes place in the universe implies a first unmoved Mover (primum movens immobile), who is God; else we should postulate an infinite series of movers, which is inconceivable.
For the same reason efficient causes, as we see them operating in this world, imply the existence of a First Cause that is uncaused, i.e. that possesses in itself the sufficient reason for its existence; and this is God.
The fact that contingent beings exist, i.e. beings whose non-existence is recognized as possible, implies the existence of a necessary being, who is God.
The graduated perfections of being actually existing in the universe can be understood only by comparison with an absolute standard that is also actual, i.e., an infinitely perfect Being such as God.
The wonderful order or evidence of intelligent design which the universe exhibits implies the existence of a supramundane Designer, who is no other than God Himself.
To these many Theists add other arguments:
the common consent of mankind (usually described by Catholic writers as the moral argument),
from the internal witness of conscience to the supremacy of the moral law, and, therefore, to the existence of a supreme Lawgiver (this may be called the ethical argument, or
from the existence and perception of beauty in the universe (the aesthetical argument).
One might go on, indeed, almost indefinitely multiplying and distinguishing arguments; but to do so would only lead to confusion.

The various arguments mentioned — and the same is true of others that might be added — are not in reality distinct and independent arguments, but only so many partial statements of one and the same general argument, which is perhaps best described as the cosmological. This argument assumes the validity of the principle of causality or sufficient reason and, stated in its most comprehensive form, amounts to this: that it is impossible according to the laws of human thought to give any ultimate rational explanation of the phenomena of external experience and of internal consciousness — in other words to synthesize the data which the actual universe as a whole supplies (and this is the recognized aim of philosophy) — unless by admitting the existence of a self-sufficient and self-explanatory cause or ground of being and activity, to which all these phenomena may be ultimately referred.

It is, therefore, mainly a question of method and expediency what particular points one may select from the multitude available to illustrate and enforce the general a posteriori argument. For our purpose it will suffice to state as briefly as possible

the general argument proving the self-existence of a First Cause,
the special arguments proving the existence of an intelligent Designer and
of a Supreme Moral Ruler, and

the confirmatory argument from the general Consent of mankind.

The Trinity
The word "trinity" is a term used to denote the Christian doctrine that God exists as a unity of three distinct persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Each of the persons is distinct from the other yet identical in essence.

The dogma of the Trinity

The Trinity is the term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion — the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these Three Persons being truly distinct one from another.

Thus, in the words of the Athanasian Creed: "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God." In this Trinity of Persons the Son is begotten of the Father by an eternal generation, and the Holy Spirit proceeds by an eternal procession from the Father and the Son. Yet, notwithstanding this difference as to origin, the Persons are co-eternal and co-equal: all alike are uncreated and omnipotent. This, the Church teaches, is the revelation regarding God's nature which Jesus Christ, the Son of God, came upon earth to deliver to the world: and which she proposes to man as the foundation of her whole dogmatic system.

In Scripture there is as yet no single term by which the Three Divine Persons are denoted together. The word trias (of which the Latin trinitas is a translation) is first found in Theophilus of Antioch about A.D. 180. He speaks of "the Trinity of God [the Father], His Word and His Wisdom (To Autolycus II.15). The term may, of course, have been in use before his time. Afterwards it appears in its Latin form of trinitas in Tertullian (On Pudicity 21). In the next century the word is in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen ("In Ps. xvii", 15). The first creed in which it appears is that of Origen's pupil, Gregory Thaumaturgus. In his Ekthesis tes pisteos composed between 260 and 270, he writes:

There is therefore nothing created, nothing subject to another in the Trinity: nor is there anything that has been added as though it once had not existed, but had entered afterwards: therefore the Father has never been without the Son, nor the Son without the Spirit: and this same Trinity is immutable and unalterable forever (P.G., X, 986).

It is manifest that a dogma so mysterious presupposes a Divine revelation. When the fact of revelation, understood in its full sense as the speech of God to man, is no longer admitted, the rejection of the doctrine follows as a necessary consequence. For this reason it has no place in the Liberal Protestantism of today. The writers of this school contend that the doctrine of the Trinity, as professed by the Church, is not contained in the New Testament, but that it was first formulated in the second century and received final approbation in the fourth, as the result of the Arian and Macedonian controversies. In view of this assertion it is necessary to consider in some detail the evidence afforded by Holy Scripture. Attempts have been made recently to apply the more extreme theories of comparative religion to the doctrine of the Trinity, and to account for it by an imaginary law of nature compelling men to group the objects of their worship in threes. It seems needless to give more than a reference to these extravagant views, which serious thinkers of every school reject as destitute of foundation.

Proof of doctrine from Scripture

New Testament

The evidence from the Gospels culminates in the baptismal commission of Matthew 28:20. It is manifest from the narratives of the Evangelists that Christ only made the great truth known to the Twelve step by step.

First He taught them to recognize in Himself the Eternal Son of God. When His ministry was drawing to a close, He promised that the Father would send another Divine Person, the Holy Spirit, in His place. Finally after His resurrection, He revealed the doctrine in explicit terms, bidding them "go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost" (Matthew 28:18). The force of this passage is decisive. That "the Father" and "the Son" are distinct Persons follows from the terms themselves, which are mutually exclusive. The mention of the Holy Spirit in the same series, the names being connected one with the other by the conjunctions "and . . . and" is evidence that we have here a Third Person co-ordinate with the Father and the Son, and excludes altogether the supposition that the Apostles understood the Holy Spirit not as a distinct Person, but as God viewed in His action on creatures.

The phrase "in the name" (eis to onoma) affirms alike the Godhead of the Persons and their unity of nature. Among the Jews and in the Apostolic Church the Divine name was representative of God. He who had a right to use it was invested with vast authority: for he wielded the supernatural powers of Him whose name he employed. It is incredible that the phrase "in the name" should be here employed, were not all the Persons mentioned equally Divine. Moreover, the use of the singular, "name," and not the plural, shows that these Three Persons are that One Omnipotent God in whom the Apostles believed. Indeed the unity of God is so fundamental a tenet alike of the Hebrew and of the Christian religion, and is affirmed in such countless passages of the Old and New Testaments, that any explanation inconsistent with this doctrine would be altogether inadmissible.

The supernatural appearance at the baptism of Christ is often cited as an explicit revelation of Trinitarian doctrine, given at the very commencement of the Ministry. This, it seems to us, is a mistake. The Evangelists, it is true, see in it a manifestation of the Three Divine Persons. Yet, apart from Christ's subsequent teaching, the dogmatic meaning of the scene would hardly have been understood. Moreover, the Gospel narratives appear to signify that none but Christ and the Baptist were privileged to see the Mystic Dove, and hear the words attesting the Divine sonship of the Messias.

Besides these passages there are many others in the Gospels which refer to one or other of the Three Persons in particular and clearly express the separate personality and Divinity of each. In regard to the First Person it will not be necessary to give special citations: those which declare that Jesus Christ is God the Son, affirm thereby also the separate personality of the Father. The Divinity of Christ is amply attested not merely by St. John, but by the Synoptists. As this point is treated elsewhere (see JESUS CHRIST), it will be sufficient here to enumerate a few of the more important messages from the Synoptists, in which Christ bears witness to His Divine Nature.

He declares that He will come to be the judge of all men (Matthew 25:31). In Jewish theology the judgment of the world was a distinctively Divine, and not a Messianic, prerogative.
In the parable of the wicked husbandmen, He describes Himself as the son of the householder, while the Prophets, one and all, are represented as the servants (Matthew 21:33 sqq.).
He is the Lord of Angels, who execute His command (Matthew 24:31).
He approves the confession of Peter when he recognizes Him, not as Messias — a step long since taken by all the Apostles — but explicitly as the Son of God: and He declares the knowledge due to a special revelation from the Father (Matthew 16:16-17).
Finally, before Caiphas He not merely declares Himself to be the Messias, but in reply to a second and distinct question affirms His claim to be the Son of God. He is instantly declared by the high priest to be guilty of blasphemy, an offense which could not have been attached to the claim to be simply the Messias (Luke 22:66-71).
St. John's testimony is yet more explicit than that of the Synoptists. He expressly asserts that the very purpose of his Gospel is to establish the Divinity of Jesus Christ (John 20:31). In the prologue he identifies Him with the Word, the only-begotten of the Father, Who from all eternity exists with God, Who is God (John 1:1-18). The immanence of the Son in the Father and of the Father in the Son is declared in Christ's words to St. Philip: "Do you not believe, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me?" (14:10), and in other passages no less explicit (14:7; 16:15; 17:21). The oneness of Their power and Their action is affirmed: "Whatever he [the Father] does, the Son also does in like manner" (5:19, cf. 10:38); and to the Son no less than to the Father belongs the Divine attribute of conferring life on whom He will (5:21). In 10:29, Christ expressly teaches His unity of essence with the Father: "That which my Father hath given me, is greater than all . . . I and the Father are one." The words, "That which my Father hath given me," can, having regard to the context, have no other meaning than the Divine Name, possessed in its fullness by the Son as by the Father.

Rationalist critics lay great stress upon the text: "The Father is greater than I" (14:28). They argue that this suffices to establish that the author of the Gospel held subordinationist views, and they expound in this sense certain texts in which the Son declares His dependence on the Father (5:19; 8:28). In point of fact the doctrine of the Incarnation involves that, in regard of His Human Nature, the Son should be less than the Father. No argument against Catholic doctrine can, therefore, be drawn from this text. So too, the passages referring to the dependence of the Son upon the Father do but express what is essential to Trinitarian dogma, namely, that the Father is the supreme source from Whom the Divine Nature and perfections flow to the Son. (On the essential difference between St. John's doctrine as to the Person of Christ and the Logos doctrine of the Alexandrine Philo, to which many Rationalists have attempted to trace it, see LOGOS.)

In regard to the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity, the passages which can be cited from the Synoptists as attesting His distinct personality are few. The words of Gabriel (Luke 1:35), having regard to the use of the term, "the Spirit," in the Old Testament, to signify God as operative in His creatures, can hardly be said to contain a definite revelation of the doctrine. For the same reason it is dubious whether Christ's warning to the Pharisees as regards blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:31) can be brought forward as proof. But in Luke 12:12, "The Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what you must say" (Matthew 10:20, and Luke 24:49), His personality is clearly implied. These passages, taken in connection with Matthew 28:19, postulate the existence of such teaching as we find in the discourses in the Cenacle reported by St. John (14, 15, 16). We have in these chapters the necessary preparation for the baptismal commission. In them the Apostles are instructed not only as the personality of the Spirit, but as to His office towards the Church. His work is to teach whatsoever He shall hear (16:13) to bring back their minds the teaching of Christ (14:26), to convince the world of sin (16:8). It is evident that, were the Spirit not a Person, Christ could not have spoken of His presence with the Apostles as comparable to His own presence with them (14:16). Again, were He not a Divine Person it could not have been expedient for the Apostles that Christ should leave them, and the Paraclete take His place (16:7). Moreover, notwithstanding the neuter form of the word (pneuma), the pronoun used in His regard is the masculine ekeinos. The distinction of the Holy Spirit from the Father and from the Son is involved in the express statements that He proceeds from the Father and is sent by the Son (15:26; cf. 14:16, 14:26). Nevertheless, He is one with Them: His presence with the Disciples is at the same time the presence of the Son (14:17-18), while the presence of the Son is the presence of the Father (14:23).

In the remaining New Testament writings numerous passages attest how clear and definite was the belief of the Apostolic Church in the three Divine Persons. In certain texts the coordination of Father, Son, and Spirit leaves no possible doubt as to the meaning of the writer. Thus in 2 Corinthians 13:13, St. Paul writes: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all." Here the construction shows that the Apostle is speaking of three distinct Persons. Moreover, since the names God and Holy Ghost are alike Divine names, it follows that Jesus Christ is also regarded as a Divine Person. So also, in 1 Corinthians 12:4-11: "There are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit; and there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord: and there are diversities of operations, but the same God, who worketh all [of them] in all [persons]." (Cf. also Ephesians 4:4-6; 1 Peter 1:2-3)

But apart from passages such as these, where there is express mention of the Three Persons, the teaching of the New Testament regarding Christ and the Holy Spirit is free from all ambiguity. In regard to Christ, the Apostles employ modes of speech which, to men brought up in the Hebrew faith, necessarily signified belief in His Divinity. Such, for instance, is the use of the Doxology in reference to Him. The Doxology, "To Him be glory for ever and ever" (cf. 1 Chronicles 16:38; 29:11; Psalm 103:31; 28:2), is an expression of praise offered to God alone. In the New Testament we find it addressed not alone to God the Father, but to Jesus Christ (2 Timothy 4:18; 2 Peter 3:18; Revelation 1:6; Hebrews 13:20-21), and to God the Father and Christ in conjunction (Revelations 5:13, 7:10).

Not less convincing is the use of the title Lord (Kyrios). This term represents the Hebrew Adonai, just as God (Theos) represents Elohim. The two are equally Divine names (cf. 1 Corinthians 8:4). In the Apostolic writings Theos may almost be said to be treated as a proper name of God the Father, and Kyrios of the Son (see, for example, 1 Corinthians 12:5-6); in only a few passages do we find Kyrios used of the Father (1 Corinthians 3:5; 7:17) or Theos of Christ. The Apostles from time to time apply to Christ passages of the Old Testament in which Kyrios is used, for example, 1 Corinthians 10:9 (Numbers 21:7), Hebrews 1:10-12 (Psalm 101:26-28); and they use such expressions as "the fear of the Lord" (Acts 9:31; 2 Corinthians 5:11; Ephesians 5:21), "call upon the name of the Lord," indifferently of God the Father and of Christ (Acts 2:21; 9:14; Romans 10:13). The profession that "Jesus is the Lord" (Kyrion Iesoun, Romans 10:9; Kyrios Iesous, 1 Corinthians 12:3) is the acknowledgment of Jesus as Jahweh. The texts in which St. Paul affirms that in Christ dwells the plenitude of the Godhead (Colossians 2:9), that before His Incarnation He possessed the essential nature of God (Philippians 2:6), that He "is over all things, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:5) tell us nothing that is not implied in many other passages of his Epistles.

The doctrine as to the Holy Spirit is equally clear. That His distinct personality was fully recognized is shown by many passages. Thus He reveals His commands to the Church's ministers: "As they were ministering to the Lord and fasting, the Holy Ghost said to them: Separate me Saul and Barnabas . . ." (Acts 13:2). He directs the missionary journey of the Apostles: "They attempted to go into Bithynia, and the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not" (Acts 16:7; cf. Acts 5:3; 15:28; Romans 15:30). Divine attributes are affirmed of Him.

He possesses omniscience and reveals to the Church mysteries known only to God (1 Corinthians 2:10);
it is He who distributes charismata (1 Corinthians 12:11);
He is the giver of supernatural life (2 Corinthians 3:8);
He dwells in the Church and in the souls of individual men, as in His temple (Romans 8:9-11; 1 Corinthians 3:16, 6:19).
The work of justification and sanctification is attributed to Him (1 Corinthians 6:11; Romans 15:16), just as in other passages the same operations are attributed to Christ (1 Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 2:17).
To sum up: the various elements of the Trinitarian doctrine are all expressly taught in the New Testament. The Divinity of the Three Persons is asserted or implied in passages too numerous to count. The unity of essence is not merely postulated by the strict monotheism of men nurtured in the religion of Israel, to whom "subordinate deities" would have been unthinkable; but it is, as we have seen, involved in the baptismal commission of Matthew 28:19, and, in regard to the Father and the Son, expressly asserted in John 10:38. That the Persons are co-eternal and coequal is a mere corollary from this. In regard to the Divine processions, the doctrine of the first procession is contained in the very terms Father and Son: the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and Son is taught in the discourse of the Lord reported by St. John (14-17) (see HOLY GHOST).

Old Testament

The early Fathers were persuaded that indications of the doctrine of the Trinity must exist in the Old Testament and they found such indications in not a few passages. Many of them not merely believed that the Prophets had testified of it, they held that it had been made known even to the Patriarchs. They regarded it as certain that the Divine messenger of Genesis 16:7, 16:18, 21:17, 31:11; Exodus 3:2, was God the Son; for reasons to be mentioned below (III. B.) they considered it evident that God the Father could not have thus manifested Himself (cf. Justin, Dialogue with Trypho 60; Irenaeus, Against Heresies IV.20.7-11; Tertullian, Against Praxeas 15-16; Theophilus, To Autolycus II.22; Novatian, On the Trinity 18, 25, etc.). They held that, when the inspired writers speak of "the Spirit of the Lord", the reference was to the Third Person of the Trinity; and one or two (Irenaeus, Against Heresies II.30.9; Theophilus, To Autolycus II.15; Hippolytus, Against Noetus 10) interpret the hypostatic Wisdom of the Sapiential books, not, with St. Paul, of the Son (Hebrews 1:3; cf. Wisdom 7:25-26), but of the Holy Spirit. But in others of the Fathers is found what would appear to be the sounder view, that no distinct intimation of the doctrine was given under the Old Covenant. (Cf. Gregory Nazianzen, Fifth Theological Oration 31; Epiphanius, "Ancor." 73, "Haer.", 74; Basil, Against Eunomius II.22; Cyril of Alexandria, "In Joan.", xii, 20.)

Some of these, however, admitted that a knowledge of the mystery was granted to the Prophets and saints of the Old Dispensation (Epiphanius, "Haer.", viii, 5; Cyril of Alexandria, "Con. Julian., " I). It may be readily conceded that the way is prepared for the revelation in some of the prophecies. The names Emmanuel (Isaiah 7:14) and God the Mighty (Isaiah 9:6) affirmed of the Messias make mention of the Divine Nature of the promised deliverer. Yet it seems that the Gospel revelation was needed to render the full meaning of the passages clear. Even these exalted titles did not lead the Jews to recognize that the Saviour to come was to be none other than God Himself. The Septuagint translators do not even venture to render the words God the Mighty literally, but give us, in their place, "the angel of great counsel."

A still higher stage of preparation is found in the doctrine of the Sapiential books regarding the Divine Wisdom. In Proverbs 8, Wisdom appears personified, and in a manner which suggests that the sacred author was not employing a mere metaphor, but had before his mind a real person (cf. verses 22, 23). Similar teaching occurs in Ecclesiasticus 24, in a discourse which Wisdom is declared to utter in "the assembly of the Most High", i.e. in the presence of the angels. This phrase certainly supposes Wisdom to be conceived as person. The nature of the personality is left obscure; but we are told that the whole earth is Wisdom's Kingdom, that she finds her delight in all the works of God, but that Israel is in a special manner her portion and her inheritance (Ecclesiasticus 24:8-13).

In the Book of the Wisdom of Solomon we find a still further advance. Here Wisdom is clearly distinguished from Jehovah: "She is . . . a certain pure emanation of the glory of the almighty God. . .the brightness of eternal light, and the unspotted mirror of God's majesty, and the image of his goodness" (Wisdom 7:25-26. Cf. Hebrews 1:3). She is, moreover, described as "the worker of all things" (panton technitis, 7:21), an expression indicating that the creation is in some manner attributable to her. Yet in later Judaism this exalted doctrine suffered eclipse, and seems to have passed into oblivion. Nor indeed can it be said that the passage, even though it manifests some knowledge of a second personality in the Godhead, constitutes a revelation of the Trinity. For nowhere in the Old Testament do we find any clear indication of a Third Person. Mention is often made of the Spirit of the Lord, but there is nothing to show that the Spirit was viewed as distinct from Jahweh Himself. The term is always employed to signify God considered in His working, whether in the universe or in the soul of man. The matter seems to be correctly summed up by Epiphanius, when he says: "The One Godhead is above all declared by Moses, and the twofold personality (of Father and Son) is strenuously asserted by the Prophets. The Trinity is made known by the Gospel" ("Haer.", lxxiv).

This article is divided as follows:Catholic Encyclepedia

Daily Messages

Spirit Message
Today’s guidance is from Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue, PH.D.

“This Egyptian high-priestess moon goddess is regarded as one of the most important ancient deities because of her many functions and her vivid history. She’s simultaneously motherly and businesslike, feminine and ultra-strong. Isis brought her murdered husband, Osiris, back to life, and they conceived their beloved son, Horus (the falcon-headed pharaoh). Unfortunately, Osiris was murdered beyond repair after the conception, and Isis devoted her attention to raising Horus. Isis also convinced the sun god Ra, to tell her his secret names that contained vibrational tones that created instant manifestations. Thus, Isis is also known as a goddess of Divine magic and alchemy. You can call upon her for assistance in many areas, including help with past-life memories.”
A situation which has been weighing heavily on your mind or in your heart lately has to do with past life memories. “Your roots upon this planet are strong and deep, and some of the roots have anchored you in past memories from faraway times. These roots have anchored you so deeply, in fact, that you’re paralyzed when it comes to moving forward. I’ve called your attention to this condition so that you may unearth and uproot past memories. Sometimes you bury those memories to shield yourself from psychic pain or embarrassment, so you won’t remember those awkward moments when life tested you to the maximum. Reveal those lessons to yourself, now, strong sorceress, and move forward with the confidence that you have sage wisdom behind you.”

Today’s guidance is from Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue, PH.D.

Happy Heart-

Alfred Tennyson, Lord Tennyson. 1809–1892
Summer Night
NOW sleeps the crimson petal, now the white;Nor waves the cypress in the palace walk;Nor winks the gold fin in the porphyry font:
The firefly wakens: waken thou with me.Now droops the milk-white peacock like a ghost,
And like a ghost she glimmers on to me.Now lies the Earth all Danaë to the stars,
And all thy heart lies open unto me.Now slides the silent meteor on, and leavesA shining furrow, as thy thoughts in me. 
Now folds the lily all her sweetness up,And slips into the bosom of the lake:
So fold thyself, my dearest, thou, and slipInto my bosom and be lost in me.
Alfred Lord Tennyson
Lost Love
(From “In Memoriam”)
I envy not in any moodsThe captive void of noble rage,The linnet born within the cage,That never knew the summer woods; 
I envy not the beast that takesHis license in the field of time,Unfetter’d by the sense of crime,To whom a conscience never wakes; 
Nor, what may count itself as blest,The heart that never plighted trothBut stagnates in the weeds of sloth;Nor any want-begotten rest. 
I hold it true, whate’er befall; I feel it, when I sorrow most;‘T is better to have loved and lostThan never to have loved at all.
The Dream
by Edna St. Vincent Millay
Love, if I weep it will not matter,And if you laugh I shall not care;Foolish am I to think about it,But it is good to feel you there.
Love, in my sleep I dreamed of waking,White and awful the moonlight reachedOver the floor, and somewhere, somewhereThere was a shutter loose- it screeched!
Swung in the wind- and no wind blowing-I was afraid and turned to you,Put out my hand to you for comfort-And you were gone!  Cold as the dew,
Under my hand the moonlight lay!Love, if you laugh I shall not care,But if I weep it will not matter-Ah, it is good to feel you there.


The Goddess


Prayer to the Goddess

Mother sublime and supernal,again and again You pour out
upon me Your bounty.
With each turn of the season You
vouchsafe to me some gift
without which I would be left wanting.
My spirit gropes feebly toward Your brightness;
You instruct my desire, asI
am but a child. reaching for her Mother.
Always You hold out Your hand to steady me
and rejoice my growth and understanding.
World-Mother of us all
to You I offer gratitude and praise.
—The Book Of Hours: Prayers to the Goddess
By Galen Gillotte

A long time ago before we worshipped a god in the sky, most cultures across the planet worshipped a goddess.  The Great Mother Goddess was seen as the sacred made imminent in the natural world, expressed in the diversity of all forms of life and death, in alignment with the cycles and seasons of the earth – she was mother nature.  Women’s bodies were able to perform acts of creation in the form of birth.  This creation was mirrored in the animals and the crops and the ancient ones recognized that women’s bodies were a vehicle for new life and as such, were deemed sacred.

In Goddess based societies, sexuality expressed in the naked female form was honoured and revered, not only within the erotic sexual act, but in the female body as a symbol for both reproduction and creation.  She is the Goddess, the divine represented as female as opposed to male.  At once, both imminent and transcendent.

Prehistoric artefacts including statues of fertility goddesses and painted feminine images in caves and on pots attest to the worship of the feminine mother principle across a great many cultures from Old Europe to the Indus Valley.  Archaeologists who discovered statues and rock carvings such as the Neolithic Venus of Willendorf, propose that a Great Mother Goddess was worshipped as far back as 40,000 BCE and that society acknowledged the goddess as the source of creation, the font from which all life emanated.

Yes folks, god was a woman!


The triple moon is a Goddess symbol that represents the Maiden, Mother, and Crone as the waxing, full, and waning moon. It is also associated with feminine energy, mystery and psychic abilities. You often see this symbol on crowns or other head-pieces, particularly worn by High Priestesses.

The Maiden represents enchantment, inception, expansion, the female principle, the promise of new beginnings, youth, excitement, and a carefree erotic aura. The Maiden in Greek Mythology is Persephone - purity - and a representation of new beginnings. Other maiden goddesses include: Brigid, Nimue, among others.

The Mother represents ripeness, fertility, fulfillment, stability, and power. The Mother Goddess in Greek mythology is Demeter, representing wellspring of life, giving and compassionate. Other mother goddesses include: Aa, Ambika, Ceres, Astarte, Lakshmi.

The Crone represents wisdom, repose, and compassion. The Crone in Greek mythology is Hecate - wise, knowing, a culmination of a lifetime of experience. Crone goddesses include: Hel, Maman Brigitte, Oya, Sedna, Skuld, and others.


  1. In Roman mythology, Aurora, goddess of thedawn, renews herself every morning and flies across the sky, announcing the arrival of the sun. Her parentage was flexible: for Ovid, she could equally be Pallantis, signifying the daughter of Pallas, or the daughter of Hyperion.

Aurora is the Roman name for the Goddess of the Dawn. Her mythology and attributes are the same as the Greek Eos, and She does not seem to have any specifically Roman mythology. Her name simply means "the dawn, daybreak, or sunrise", and in time the word came to signify the East as well as the peoples from the Eastern lands. Her name may be related to Latin aurum, meaning "gold", through the shared idea of brightness.

Ovid tells of Her in his Metamorphoses: he describes Her as being ever-young, and the first to awake, so that She may bring the light of day in Her chariot which She rides into the sky ahead of the Sun. She has a purple mantle that spreads out behind Her as She rides; and She is said to scatter roses and flowers before Her. Others describe Her with great white wings, like Eos. She is said to be the mother of the four winds; though this part of Her legend is Greek, one variant spelling of Her name, Aurura, has the meaning of "breeze or wind". She is considered the mother of the morning star, Lucifer (which means "the Light Bringer"), a name for the planet Venus, (though not necessarily of the Goddess Venus), who watches over the twilight until His mother takes over for Him. Lucifera (the feminine version) is attested as an epithet of Diana as the Moon Goddess.

An aurora is of course also the name for the phenomenon of the northern (or southern) lights, great displays of shifting colors in the skies of the far north and south. Aurora borealis is said to mean "red dawn of the north", and was given its name by Galileo Galilei, the scientist who discovered the moons of Jupiter. Aurorae are caused by solar particles interacting with gasses in the Earth's atmosphere. The Earth's magnetic field funnels these particles to the poles (both north and south), where they emit light, in colors ranging from red to yellow-green to blue and violet, depending on the atmospheric molecule the particles come in contact with. They are generally said to look like shifting curtains or veils of light, evoking Aurora's purple cloak blowing behind Her as She rides across the sky. 

Isis (Aset)

Isis - Goddess Of The Throne.
(The Egyptian words Ast or Aset, mean 'Throne or Seat'. Isis is an onomatopoeic Asianic word, Ish-ish, meaning 'she who weeps'.)
Isis, was for almost 3,500 years, the principle Goddess of Egypt. She was the wife and sister of Osiris and the mother of Horus, and the personification of the faithful wife and devoted mother. Isis is the Mistress Of The Words of Power and the Goddess Of Nature. She is the embodiment of nature and magic. The lap of the Goddess Isis was regarded as the royal throne, while her breast poured forth the nectar that conferred the divine right to rule.
Isis, is often depicted crowned with a throne or later with a disc and two horns. The Sycamore tree was sacred to Isis, and she is associated with the planet Venus, Copper and the colours emerald and turquoise.
The story of Isis.
The Sun god Ra ordered Shu (Air) to separate Nut (Sky) from her brother/lover Geb (Earth), he also declared that Nut should never have children in any month of the year. Thoth, the god of wisdom, won from the moon, in a game of draughts, one seventy-second part of its light. It was during these days, that belonged to no month, that she bore Osiris, Horus the Elder, Set Isis and Nephthys. Osiris and Isis fell in love and mated while still in Nut's womb and became man and wife, her sister Nephthys married Set.
Together with Osiris, they ruled Egypt and taught the people all the basic skills of civilisation. Set, however, was envious of his brother, and conspired to kill Osiris, nailing his body in a coffin and throwing it into the Nile. Isis traced the coffin to Byblos in Phoenicia, where the currents had carried it. However, a tamarisk tree had grown around it, and King Malacander had built the trunk into his palace. Isis, in disguise, first became the nurse to the kings son and later his queen. Isis revealed herself to Malacander, who granted her a ship to take the coffin back to Egypt
On her journey back to Egypt, she hid in the Nile Delta marshes near Buto, to conceal herself and the body of the dead Osiris, with whom she had become magically impregnated. Set, however, discovered the body and tore it asunder casting the fourteen pieces throughout the kingdom. Isis, undertook a journey to recover the disembodied parts of her husband/lover. At each place, as she found one of the parts, she performed a burial ritual and set up a stela marking its place, hoping to deceive Set into thinking that all the parts were buried in separate places.
In time, Isis recovered all the missing parts, except the phallus of Osiris, which Set had thrown into the Nile and had been eaten by a crab. Isis was able to fashion a new one, and magically restored Osiris's body by anointing it with precious oils. She was thus to become the inventor of embalming. Osiris, now fully immortal, became the King of Amenti, the realm of the dead, while Isis in due course gave birth to Horus the Younger.
Invocation Of Isis
I, Isis, am all that hath been that is or shall be,
I, who made light from my feathers, The wind from my wings,
No mortal man ever hath me unveiled! - Until now.
Isis and the Seven Scorpions
The god Djehuty or Thoth to the Greeks realised that Aset (Isis) was in great danger from Set. Set was her brother, but also the brother of Wesir (Osiris), to whom Aset had been wife. Set had murdered his brother, to take the throne, and now sought for Wesir’s son, Heru (Horus), whom Aset yet carried in her womb. Djehuty rescued Aset and advised her to go into hiding until her son grew of age. Aset set out for the Delta intending to hide herself in the papyrus thickets and marshes. Accompanying her were seven scorpions, the leader of which was called Tefen.
During their journey Aset and the scorpions came to the town of Per-sui and asked for refuge of the house of a wealthy lady named Usert. But Usert slammed the door in Aset’s face, so the scorpions gave Tefen all their venom and he crept under the door and bit her son.
Meanwhile a poor little fisher girl offered shelter to Aset.
Tefen’s venom caused Usert’s son extreme agony and Usert ran into the town calling for help but was ignored. Aset felt sorry for the innocent child and decided to cure him, calling Usert to bring the child to her so she could magically expel the poison. Aset put her hand on the child and recited, “O poison of Tefen, come forth and drip onto the ground. May the child live and the poison die.”
Usert was stricken with remorse and sought to make amends by filling the poor little fisher girls hut with possessions from her own home.
Aset continued on her journey and came to Khemmis in the Delta, where she gave birth to Heru, Heru Avenger of his father. She tied her girdle around the baby for protection.
There was no one to feed Aset in Khemmis, so eventually she was forced to leave Heru alone and search for food, disguised as a beggar. She wandered all day with no luck, and returned to find Heru lying still on the ground. The marsh dwellers came running but could offer no help, Aset feared this might be an attack by Set. Thn a great learned lady came and said Atum had decreed Set should not enter Khemmis and perhaps a scorpion or snake had bitten Heru. Aset smelled Heru’s breath and detected poison of the scorpion. But this time Aset was unable to expel the poison of the scorpion and her cries brought Nebt-Het and Serqet to her side. They combined their voices and reached Ra in his Barque of Millions of Years, causing the boat to stand still so that darkness descended upon the earth.
Djehuty alighted from the bark and recited the healing spell of Heru.
“Come back, Oh Poison. You are exorcised by the spell of Ra himself… the Barque of the Sun God wil stand still… until Heru recovers – to his mother’s delight. Fall onto the earth, Oh poison… darkness will cover everything… wells will be dry, crops will wither… until Heru recovers – to his mother’s delight.”
To the delight of Aset, the spell of Djehuty cured the son of Aset, Heru – Avenger of his Father and Ra and his Barque of Millions of Years was allowed to continue its journey.

Animal: Man, Woman, unicorn, sphinx, ram, owl, lion, eagle
Colour: Emerald, turquoise
Day: Wednesday, Friday
Festivals: Advent of Aset - January 2nd, July 17th, Oct 30th - Nov 2nd
Flower: Amaranth, cypress, willow, lily, ivy, snowdrop
Gems: ruby, star ruby, turquoise, sapphire, pearl, amethyst, peridot, beryl
Minerals: Phosphorus, silver, sulphates
Perfume: musk, myrrh, civert, cedar, dragons blood, narcissus, onycha
Tarot: Twos, Threes, Fours, Tens, The Emperor, The Hermit, The Hanged Man
Weapon: Lingam, Inner Robe Of Concealment, Yoni, Magic Circle

Arianrhod - Goddess of the Silver Wheel


Arianrhod - Goddess of the Silver Wheel
Welsh Star and Moon Goddess
Arianrhod (ah-ree-AHN-rhohd), Arian meaning 'silver', and Rhod meaning 'wheel' or 'disc'. Celtic Moon-Mother Goddess. Called the Silver Wheel that Descends into the Sea. Daughter of the Mother Goddess Don and her consort Beli. She is ruler of Caer Sidi, a magical realm in the north. She was worshiped as priestess of the moon. The benevolent silver sky-lady came down from her pale white chariot in the heavens to watch more closely over the tides she ruled. Her Festival is on 2nd December, she is also honoured at the Full Moon.
In addition to native variations by locality or over time, there are often several possible transliterations into the Roman alphabet used for English, Arianrhod Aranrhod - Arianrod.
A star and moon Goddess, Arianrhod was also called the Silver Wheel because the dead were carried on her Oar Wheel to Emania (the Moon- land or land of death), which belonged to her as a deity of reincarnation and karma. Her consort Nwyvre 'Sky, Space, Firmament' has survived in name only. Caer Arianrhod is the circumpolar stars, to which souls withdraw between incarnations, thus she is identified as a Goddess of reincarnation. The Mother aspect of the Triple Goddess in Wales, her palace was Caer Arianrhod (Aurora Borealis), or the secret center of each initiate's spiritual being.
The moon is the archetypal female symbol, representing the Mother Goddess connecting womb, death, rebirth, creation. (Albion, the old name of Britain, meant 'White Moon'). The Celts "know well the way of seas and stars", and counted time not by days, but by nights, and made their calendars, such as the famous Coligny Calendar, not by the sun, but by the moon. Ancient astrologers took their observations from the position of the moon and its progress in relation to the stars - the starry wheel of Arianrhod.
In Celtic Myth the Goddess has three major aspects: the maiden, the mother and the crone. These three represent the three stages in life of a woman. Blodeuwedd is the flower maiden, Arianrhod represents the mother and The Morrigu at last is the crone. These three aspects of the Celtic goddess may have different names in different regions and regional legends. For example, Morrigan also takes the mother role at times.
Arianrhod is said to be able to shape shift into a large Owl, and through the great Owl-eyes, sees even into the darkness of the human subconscious and soul. The Owl symbolizes death and renewal, wisdom, moon magic, and initiations. She is said to move with strength and purpose through the night, her wings of comfort and healing spread to give solace to those who seek her.
Hymn to Arianrhod
Arianrhod of the Silver Wheel
By all the names men give thee -
We, thy hidden children, humbly kneel
Thy truth to hear, thy countenance to see.
Here in the circle cast upon the Earth
Yet open to the stars - unseen, yet real -
Within our hearts give understanding birth,
Our wounds of loss and loneliness to heal.
Isis unveiled and Isis veiled, thou art;
The Earth below our feet, the Moon on high.
In thee these two shall never be apart -
The magick of the Earth and Sky.
The only remaining source is a story in the Mabinogion:
The Story of Math ap Mathonwy
It is the story of Math ap Mathonwy (MAHTH ap mah-THOHN-wee), who is king, teacher, and wizard, brother of Don; uncle of Arianrhod, Gwydion, Amaethon, and Gofannon.
She was the daughter of the Welsh Goddess Danu. Her uncle, King Math, was compelled by a taboo to keep his feet in the lap of a virgin whenever he was not actively engaged in battle. After his first 'footholder', Goewin, was deflowered, Math asked Arianrhod to take her place. She had to step across a magic rod to prove her virginity, but when she did so, twin boys dropped from between her legs. Math named the first of the boys Dylan.
The second of these was taken away by Arianrhod's brother Gwydion and raised in a magic forest. Arianrhod incensed by what she had suffered, laid three curses on the boy, Lleu. He shall have no name except one she gives him. He shall bear no arms except ones she gives him. He shall have no wife of the race that is now on the earth. Through elaborate magic and trickery, Gwydion deceived Arianrhod into breaking the first two curses herself. To break the third, Math and Gwydion created Blodeuwedd, a woman made of flowers, to be Lleu's bride. Blodeuwedd (flower face), who appears to the embodiment of a fertility Goddess, betrayed her lover, Lleu, to his death, but his spirit hung on a tree was resurrected on the following day.
Humiliated by King Math, thwarted by her son, forsaken by her brother, Arianrhod retreated to her castle Caer Arianrhod. Here she later drowned when the sea reclaimed the land.
Day of the week: 
Colour: green and white 
Influences: Beauty, fertility, reincarnation, past life memories, difficulties.
Candle: white
Hymn to Arianrhod from The Witches' Goddess (c) 1987
Janet and Stewart Farrar  

The Thirteen Goddesses


 In the beginning was the Mother. As far back as 30,000 years ago, the people of the earth worshipped a female deity. In cultures around the world, the Goddess has been revered in myriad forms, in temple and grove, cathedral and cave. She has been celebrated and venerated through ritual, myth, and art. — The Goddess

Here are brief descriptions of the thirteen goddesses after whom the months in the McKenna-Meyer Goddess Calendar are named.

1. Athena (a.k.a. Athene) is the "Greek goddess of wisdom, of household arts and crafts, of spinning and weaving, of textiles. Inventor of the flute, the plough and the ox-yoke, the horse bridle and the chariot." — Pallas Athena, Goddess of Wisdom. (See also Athene, Athene, and Athena, Greek Goddess of Wisdom and Craftsmanship) 

2. Brigid "is the Celtic Goddess of poetry, healing and craft (especially metalcraft). She is the inspiration to all bards and artisans, scholars and any who work with words." — Brigid  (See also Bride, Bride Tale and Brighid)

3. Cerridwen "is the Welsh grain and sow-goddess, keeper of the cauldron of inspiration and goddess of transformation." — Cerridwen  (See also Cerridwen, Goddess Cerridwynand Cerridwen: Keeper of the Cauldron)

4. Diana "is the Roman goddess of the wild places who protects women and girls, especially virgins. ... [She] loves forests and the hunt, is the patroness of childbirth, and is associated with the light of the moon. The Romans recognized three aspects of her — as the Moon-goddess, they called her Luna; as an underworld deity of magic, Hekate; and as the huntress-goddess, Diana." — Diana  (See also Diana and Diana/Artemis)

5. Epona is a Celtic and Roman goddess of fertility and a protector of horses and their owners. (See Epona, the Gaulish Horse Goddess and

6. Freya (a.k.a. Freyja) is "a Norse goddess of love and fertility, war and wealth. Her attributes include a famous necklace named Brisingamen, acquired from the dwarves by sleeping with them, a cloak with the property of allowing her to transform into a bird, and a chariot driven by large cats." — Freya (See also Freyja, Freyja, Freyja — Goddess of Abundance and Fertility and Lakshmi, Venus and Freya)

7. Gaea (pronounced Jee-ah; a.k.a. Gaia) "is the ancient Greek Goddess of the Earth, ... the Mother of All, who nourishes and cares for Her children, and brings rich blessings. As Goddess of the Earth, She was also an Underworld goddess who brought all Her creations back to Her and destroyed as well as created." — Gaea  (See also Gaia)

8. Hathor (pronounced Hat-hor) "is the Ancient Egyptian sky- and mother goddess, who is ... goddess of women, love and joy, music, dance, celebration and beauty. She protects women and is present whenever they beautify themselves. She blesses women with fertility, and many of the ritual objects associated with Her ... also have an erotic significance, and in fact the Greeks identified Her with their Aphrodite." — Hathor  (See also Hathor — Lady of heaven and Hathor)

9. Inanna "is the Sumerian Great Goddess and forerunner of the Babylonian Ishtar, with whom She shares similar legends. ... [She] is the First Daughter of the Moon, and the Star of Morning and Evening, ... is linked to the planet Venus and is a love-goddess. Her wedding to the Shepherd Dumuzi was celebrated on the first day of the new year as a sacred marriage rite, and Her legends show Her to be a woman of powerful sexuality." — Innana (See also Inanna)

10. Juno is "the Goddess of marriage, pregnancy and childbirth ... an embodiment of the traditional female roles of wife and mother." — Juno (See also Juno, Goddess of Marriage)

11. Kore "Kore and Demeter are thought of as two faces of the same goddess, and with Persephone, Kore's name as Queen of the Underworld, they make up the classic Triple Goddess — Kore (whose name means simply 'The Maiden'), Demeter ('Earth/Barley Mother') and Persephone ('Destroyer of Light'), the Crone or Death-goddess. Within Herself, the Goddess (and Woman) contains the whole cycle of life, from birth to death to rebirth. ... The journey of the Great Goddess through death and rebirth formed the basis of the famed cult of the Eleusinian Mysteries ..." — Kore  (See also Kore Tale)

12. Lilith "is a Sumerian/Babylonian demon-goddess, who is perhaps better known for Her role in Hebrew legend ... [where] Lilith is Adam's first wife. She refused to have sex with him because she did not want to be beneath him." — Lilith  (See also Lilith Tale and Lilith) 

13. Maria Every now and then a living goddess appears, and in the 20th C. we had Maria Callas, perhaps best known for her 84 performances as Norma, the Druid high priestess in Bellini's opera of the same name, in which she famously sings a prayer to the Moon Goddess, Casta Diva ('chaste goddess'). Maria is also the Latin name of the goddess Mary, portrayed as a sexless virgin, but as a devoted mother, by a dour patriarchal Christian Church. And there's Mary Magdalen, the esoteric initiate of Jesus. (See also The Tradition of Mary, the Great Goddess) 
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